Smoking during pregnancy is bad and just unacceptable, for due to this, weak children are born: they have low weight and are sickly. Everybody knows that. And not long ago, the scientists discovered that the child being in mother’s stomach and got accustomed to nicotine is at risk of becoming a fat criminally inclined smoking psycho with a “wolf jaw”.
What can be expected from tobacco more? – thought the scientists and urgently began to study the nicotine effect on the living organisms. Experiments with animals proved that the animals die from tobacco. Evidently, it was then, when an expression “A drop of nicotine kills a horse” appeared. Gradually, the scientists were discovering more new facts on how cigarettes affect human’s body. It appeared that not only lungs, bronchi and heart suffer from smoking, but work of internal secretion glands is worsening, digestion is being interrupted, the temper and teeth are being spoilt, potency is decreasing. However, the highest damage of smoking is caused to the yet unborn children.
Smoking during pregnancy
All nicotine, carbon oxide, benzapyrene and even some radioactive contaminants from cigarettes, getting to the body of a pregnant woman, after the first inhaling, instantly penetrate through the placenta to the child. At that, concentration of all these contaminants in the fetus’ organism is much higher than in the mother’s blood! What is happening after, we can easily imagine. Due to nicotine, placenta vessel spasm occurs, and child’s oxygen hunger begins. Poisonous contaminants have an effect on its gentle organs and prevent the baby from normal growth.
As a result, the majority of children born by the smokers come into being with low weight and is sickly, develop slower than the children of the same age and more often die in the childhood. The statistics shows that smoking (regardless number of cigarettes smoked) during pregnancy increases the risk of its interruption almost 2.2 times!
After the medical professionals published these shocking data, it was clear: give up smoking yet before pregnancy is the only way to give birth to a healthy child. However, even then, when the hazard of cigarettes became known to all upcoming mothers, many women didn’t think how to give up smoking quickly during pregnancy. Warnings on low weight and mysterious intrauterine growth restriction sounded abstract, and psychical and physical nicotine addiction was real. Neither positive attitude, nor nicotine patches and chewing gums, nor psychotherapy sessions and acupuncture helped to give up smoking. Approximately 27% of all pregnant women continued smoking.
What is an Effect on Psychical State?
By the end of the 20th century, data on how smoking affects the pregnancy shocked the medical world. It was discovered that the nicotine had bad influence not only on a physical, but psychical state of the unborn child as well. Leading American gynecologists proved that children of smoking mothers already at an early age were typically inattentive, impulsive, had a syndrome of hyperactivity with attention defect and below average intelligence level. Most commonly, they have so-called “fidgety Phil” syndrome developed: such children, as a rule, are aggressive and inclined to deception. The psychologists came to a conclusion that children, whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, are at 45% higher risk of autism development – a psychic disorder, when a person cannot contract with the surrounding reality and orients him- or herself with respect to the world of own emotional experience. Trying to explain the obtained fact, the scientists assumed that it is insufficient oxygen provision to the embryo’s brain to blame. Moreover, it is possible that nicotine influences the specific genes responsible for psychomotor functions. The International Researchers Group from Emory University in Atlanta (Georgia) discovered a connection between the smoking of pregnant women and the further inclination of children to the crime. They generalized data on four thousand men born in Texas from September 1971 to December 1981 and cases of their arrests by the age of 35. It appeared that those men, whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, got into prison 1.8 times more often for non-violent crimes and 2.5 time more often for the violent ones.
“Hare Lip” and “Wolf Jaw”
Scaring discoveries did not finish on it. In 2008, the British scientists revealed the relation between smoking at the early pregnancy stages and child’s birth with the facial cleft. According to the author of the conducted research Peter Mossi (professor of the Faculty of Dentistry at the University of Dundee), the formation of the roof of the mouth occurs on the 7-8th week of the pregnancy, and smoking of the upcoming mother in this period may become apparent in a form of the “wolf jaw” or “hare lip” at the child.
Additional researches approved this assumption. 44% of mothers, whose children were born with facial defect, were smoking during pregnancy. Speaking about non-smoking mothers, they give birth to such children two times less often.
About the same time, the American researchers proved that women smoking during pregnancy much more often give birth to club-footed children. Risk of club foot among such children is higher for 35%. Moreover, if mother’s smoking is combined with the hereditary factor, the club foot risk increases 25-30 times.
The Recent Data:
- Boys born by smoking mothers have less testicles size, and the spermatozoid concentration in the semen on average is 25% lower than at children of non-smokers.
- Children, whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, a few times more often start smoking themselves than the children whose mothers didn’t smoke during pregnancy.
- Children, whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, by one third times than the rest ones are at risk to get diabetes or obesity by the age of 15.